Glissandrin™: The Ultimate Anti-Aging Skincare Ingredient

This is Part 3 of a 3-part series on the quest by scientists to find effective ways to fight skin aging. In our previous article, entitled “What have scientists found to fight the leading cause of skin aging – mitochondrial decay?”, we discussed how Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B have been proven to be successful in that regard, dramatically improving the appearance of aging skin.

A study related to this was recently published in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, the official publication of the International Academy of Cosmetic Dermatology. “Mitochondria: a new focus as an anti-aging target in skin care” confirms the important role of mitochondrial function in aging and advocates targeting mitochondria in the development of new products.

Here, we continue to explore the use of Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B in the revolutionary new ingredient, Glissandrin™, which promises to change the way we approach skin care.

As discussed in previous articles, mitochondrial decay plays a fundamental role in the process of aging. Over time, cells lose the ability to function normally, falling victim to free radicals and the ensuing oxidative stress. The consequences of this appear as the visible signs of skin aging, including wrinkles, fine lines, age spots, loss of suppleness, and a marked deterioration in skin tone.

Glissandrin™

Glissandrin™ is a suite of natural compounds isolated from the Schisandra berry. Consisting mainly of Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B, Glissandrin™ also comprises (±)γ-Schisandrin, Schisandrin A, and Schisandrin C. Extensive research on Glissandrin™ has confirmed its anti-aging properties on skin cells, most notably on its ability to target the fundamental cause of aging: mitochondrial decay.

Research Findings

A. Mitochondrial decay in skin cells can be reversed by topical application of Glissandrin™

A 3-day application of Glissandrin™ cream (2% and 5%) to skin cells caused a dose-dependent increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) and α-tocopherol (α-Toc) levels in skin mitochondria. Glissandrin™ cream is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria and to reverse mitochondrial decay in aging skin cells.

Figure 1: Glissandrin™ enhances mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in the skin

Cream containing 2% or 5% Glissandrin™ was applied to skin cells on a daily basis for 3 days. The control group was treated with cream containing no Glissandrin™. Skin tissues were isolated and mitochondrial fractions were prepared. Mitochondrial reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels were measured. P < 0.05 when compared to the control, using Student’s t-test.

B. Mitochondrial functional capabilities in skin cells can be enhanced by topical application of Glissandrin™

Glissandrin™ also dose-dependently increased mitochondrial ATP (cellular energy) production in human skin cells, indicative of enhancement in mitochondrial functional ability.

Figure 2: Glissandrin™ enhances the mitochondrial functional ability in human skin cells

Cultured human skin cells were incubated with Glissandrin™ at the indicated concentration for 24 or 48 hours. ATP generation capacity was measured in situ and data were expressed as the percentage of control. P < 0.05 when compared to the control, using Student’s t-test.

C. In-vivo and in-vitro studies have confirmed other properties of Glissandrin™ that are beneficial to the skin :

  • Emolliating proliferative skin conditions
  • Enhancing the natural antioxidative capabilities in skin cells
  • Increasing the expression of cellular heat shock proteins, thereby alerting the skin to adverse external environmental factors
  • Suppressing inflammation
  • Inhibiting the production of collagenase, an enzyme that destroys collagen
  • Protecting skin cells from solar radiation – particularly UV – and repairing skin cells with UV damage
  • Reducing the destruction of elastin, a protein in the skin matrix responsible for skin elasticity
  • Inhibiting ATR protein kinase activity (cancer prevention)

Glissandrin™ has been clinically tested to be safe for even the most sensitive skin, especially for users who experience adverse reactions to most skincare products.

The desired level of biological availability and the purity of chemical compositions of Glissandrin™ are standardized through a proprietary process developed specifically for its manufacturing. Furthermore, the concentrations of the constituent compounds have been formulated for easy absorption, optimal efficacy, and a luxurious feel when applied to the skin.

The International Academy of Cosmetic Dermatology has spoken, and its message is clear: targeting mitochondrial decay is now the goal of the anti-aging industry. Without understanding and addressing mitochondrial decay, the leading cause of skin aging, most skincare products are ill-equipped to provide the real, sustainable results they promise. Fortunately, Glissandrin™ is available today as the ultimate anti-aging skincare solution.

For More Information

More information on Schisandrin B, (−)Schisandrin B, and mitochondrial decay can be found on these independent websites:

National Institutes of Health (http://www.nih.gov/)

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/)

Natural Standard (http://www.naturalstandard.com/)

About Glissandra™ Skincare Inc.

Glissandra™ Skincare Inc. is a network marketing company (also known as multi-level marketing, MLM, or direct sales) dedicated to providing effective anti-aging skincare through its holistic approach to skin health. Glissandra’s comprehensive skincare system is the result of over 20 years of research and development at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, led by Dr. Robert Ko. Over 100 research papers have been published on its key proprietary ingredient, Glissandrin™, a suite of natural compounds extracted from the Schisandra berry. In-vivo and in-vitro studies have proven the ability of Glissandrin™ to address mitochondrial decay, the leading cause of aging, and to enhance the cell’s natural ability to fight oxidative damage. (http://glissandra.com).

Contact Us

http://www.glissandra.com/

info [at] glissandra [dot] com

1-877-313-7242

References

“Mitochondria: a new focus as an anti-aging target in skin care”; Menon et al, Global R&D, ISP Corporation, New Jersey, USA; Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 2010, Wiley Periodicals Inc.

“Composition and Biological Activity of Different Extract from Schisandra sphenanthera and Schisandra chinensis”; Huyke, et al., Department of Dermatology, University Medical Centre, Freiburg, Germany; Planta Medica 2007.

“Schisandrin B-induced increase in cellular glutathione level and protection against oxidant injury are mediated by the enhancement of glutathione synthesis and regeneration in AML12 and H9c2 cells”, Ko et al., Biofactors 2006; 26: 221-230.

“Hepatoprotective mechanism of Schisandrin B: Role of mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status and heat shock proteins”, Ko et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2003; 35: 368-380.

“Composition and Biological Activity of Different Extracts from Schisandra sphenanthera and Schisandra chinensis”, Huyke et al., Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center, Freiberg, Germany, Planta Med 2007 73: 1116-1126.

“Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts”; Ko et al.; Department of Biochemistry, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Fitoterapia 82 (2011) 682-691.

“Inhibition of ATR protein kinase activity by Schisandrin B in DNA damage response”, H. Nishida et al., Department of Applied Life Science, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences; Nucleic Acids Research 2009, Vol. 37, No. 17.

What have scientists found to fight the leading cause of skin aging – mitochondrial decay?

Introduction

This is Part 2 of a 3-part series on the quest by scientists to find effective ways to fight skin aging. In our previous article, entitled “What causes skin aging: Making sense of the latest research findings”, we discussed how oxidative damage is regarded in the scientific community as the primary cause of aging, and how mitochondria play a significant role in this by being a major source of free radicals.

Now, scientists have made a breakthrough in fighting the leading cause of skin aging: Schisandrins have been proven to effectively reverse mitochondrial decay.

A recap of our previous discussion

Mitochondrial decay in aging refers to a progressive disruption to mitochondrial structural integrity and functional ability over time. Consequently, cells experience impaired energy production, a decline in normal function, and accelerated free radical generation. This is the phenomenon of cellular aging, which makes the cell more prone to apoptosis, or programmed cell death – much like cell suicide.

Figure 1: Structure of a mitochondrion

Skin aging – the signs of which are commonly manifested in wrinkles, fine lines, age spots, loss of suppleness, and deterioration of skin tone – has been proven to involve mitochondrial dysfunction.

The mitochondria–free radical connection

Research has shown that mitochondria are a major source of free radicals. Deteriorating mitochondria instigate a vicious cycle of exacerbated oxidative stress. Consistent with these findings is the concept that “manipulating the signaling pathways that regulate cellular antioxidant defense” and “controlling the intracellular levels of free radicals” is preferred over “altering individual antioxidant components by extrinsic supplementation”.

In simpler terms, this means that it may be more effective to combat aging by treating the source of free radical production rather than by “cleaning up” free radicals after they are generated. This theory is supported by recent studies that have found that scavenging free radicals through the supplementation of certain antioxidants could be ineffective or even harmful in the long run.[i] [ii]

The role of Schisandrin B in skin-related mitochondrial decay

There has been a substantial amount of research on remedies to combat mitochondrial decay as an effective means of mitigating the aging process. Particularly noteworthy is the research conducted by Dr. Bruce Ames (UC Berkeley) and Dr. Tory Hagen (Oregon State University), who investigated the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid on improving the functional capability of mitochondria.

Over the past few decades, the pharmacological activities of Schisandrin B, an active ingredient isolated from Fructus Schisandrae (commonly known as the Schisandra berry), have been studied extensively. Research conducted at RK-Lab at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology have demonstrated the protective effect of Schisandrin B on free radical-induced damage in various vital organs, including the heart, liver, kidney, and brain.

Figure 2: Fresh Schisandra berries

Research has shown that Schisandrin B is able to simultaneously:

  1. enhance mitochondrial functional ability, and
  2. increase natural mitochondrial antioxidant capacity.

These are clear indications that this natural compound is effective in mitigating further mitochondrial decay, successfully defeating this leading cause of skin aging.

In addition, Schisandrin B has been proven to be able to induce the expression of heat shock proteins, endogenous protein molecules essential in cellular protection against various stressful stimuli. The expression of heat shock proteins is believed by many in the scientific community to be another crucial biochemical mechanism for fighting aging.

The latest research

Recent research has found a stereoisomer of Schisandrin B, (−)Schisandrin B, to be even more potent in enhancing mitochondrial functional ability and in boosting the innate antioxidant capacity of mitochondria.

Figure 3: Comparison of a cell treated with (−)Schisandrin B vs. a cell with no treatment

(−)Schisandrin B protects cells against oxidative stress, thereby preventing disease and enabling a healthier and longer lifespan.  Without (−)Schisandrin B, cells are vulnerable to oxidative stress. This results in the loss of structural and functional integrity and cyto c release, and ultimately leads to cell death.

Implications for anti-aging skincare

The pharmacological properties of Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B have significant implications for anti-aging skincare, since skin is the largest organ of the human body, and oxidative damage has been recognized as one of the major factors that contribute to skin aging. Wrinkles, fine line, age spots, sagginess, loss of radiance, and many other signs of skin aging are all attributed to oxidative damage.

Studies at RK-Lab at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology[iii] have validated the beneficial effects of Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B on skin cells and skin tissues. Furthermore, topical formulations using Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B have been clinically tested on human subjects with remarkable anti-aging results.

Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B are the key compounds in Glissandrin™, an active ingredient in anti-aging skincare consisting of natural compounds extracted from the Schisandra berry. This active ingredient has been incorporated into the most advanced anti-aging skincare products, now available from Glissandra™ Skincare Inc.

As the first active ingredient to holistically:

  1. address mitochondrial decay,
  2. increase natural cellular antioxidant capability, and
  3. target other causes of aging,

Glissandrin™ is a breakthrough in the anti-aging skincare industry.

To be continued…

In the next article, the powerful anti-aging properties of Glissandrin™ will be explored in further detail.

For more information

More information on Schisandrin B, (−)Schisandrin B, mitochondrial decay, and theories of aging can be found at these independent websites:


[i] Mortality in Randomized Trials of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention – Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Bjelakovic et al; Journal of the American Medical Association 2007; 297(8):842-857 (doi:10.1001/jama.297.8.842).

[ii] Vitamins in Aging, Health, and Longevity, David R Thomas; The Division of Geriatric Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

[iii] The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology was ranked 35th among research universities worldwide by Times Higher Education in 2009.

From Schisandra berry to Glissandrin

In our previous articles, we reported on advanced scientific research on the Schisandra berry and its incredible health-enhancing features.  But transforming the berry from its natural state into a useful form requires a meticulous extraction process and great care in developing a formulation that enables the berry’s potent properties to be optimally used by the body.

Though the Schisandra berry grows abundantly in parts of Asia, it is not simply the berry in its natural state that produces the greatest health benefits.  The concentrations of the key compounds, (-) Schisandrin B, Schisandrin B, (±)γ-Schisandrin, Schisandrin A, and Schisandrin C, in the natural berries are minute. Additionally, neither compound is soluble in water.  Therefore, crushed berries, berry juice, and Schisandra extracts obtained by ordinary methods contain insignificant amounts of the compounds.

To put this in perspective: the amount of (-) Schisandrin B and Schisandrin A in a single bottle of Glissandra Serum is equivalent to that of a hot tub overflowing with Schisandra berries!  One would have to devote significant time and financial resources to consuming that amount of berries – for a less effective result.

As this relates to skincare, (-) Schisandrin B and Schisandrin A must be in forms that can be absorbed easily by the skin. Furthermore, as natural compounds, optimal dosages must be determined and the intended beneficial effects must be ascertained; this can be done only through clinical studies.

For over 18 years, scientists have been researching and developing Glissandrin, which is procured by a proprietary extraction process that renders (-) Schisandrin B and Schisandrin A in lipid soluble forms, guaranteeing the highest degree of purity (Glissandrins are standardized for consistency in the concentration of Schisandrins), desired level of biological activity, and anti-aging efficacies, while preserving the original chemical identities of the natural compounds.

Despite the over 100 research papers already published by world-class research institutions corroborating the anti-aging and other beneficial properties of these compounds, scientists continue to discover new pharmacological properties of (-) Schisandrin B and Schisandrin A.

A holistic approach to caring for your aging skin

We’ve come to accept the signs of skin aging – wrinkles and expression lines, droopy eyelids, age spots, dark circles, dry skin, enlarged pores, sagging skin, and more (lucky us!) – as an inevitability.  Fortunately, the science of aging has advanced at a remarkable rate in recent years, providing tremendous insight into the causes of and effective solutions for our aging skin.

Numerous studies have identified five major causes of skin aging:

  1. Mitochondrial decay
  2. Inflammation
  3. Oxidative (free-radical induced) damage
  4. Depletion of cellular components, such as collagen and elastin
  5. Adverse external factors

In light of this, it would make sense that your skincare regimen be equipped to combat all causes of skin aging – especially the leading cause, mitochondrial decay – through a comprehensive, holistic approach.  Many anti-aging skincare products contain some combination of common ingredients, such as peptides, antioxidants, and hyaluronic acid, but they don’t stand up to all causes of skin aging simultaneously.  Neglecting even one cause renders the entire approach significantly less effective.  You wouldn’t go into battle with a hole in your armor, would you?

We understand that the condition of our skin as we age, whether we retain our young and healthy look, is influenced in part by genetics and also by environmental factors, which is fantastic if you’ve been blessed with good genes.  But while you can’t control the former, the good news for everyone is that you can control your exposure to adverse external factors, such as the sun, pollution, smoking and poor nutrition.  Avoiding these, while maintaining a conscientious skincare regimen that addresses all causes of skin aging, are easy steps you can take to control your skin’s aging process.

Theories of aging: What you need to know

A recent article published by DailyBeauty explored five well-known theories of aging: inflammation, lifestyle, hormones, antioxidants, and detoxification. Though all are worthy of discussion, perhaps the most important theory, mitochondrial decay, was not mentioned. This dark horse in the race against skin aging – and indeed aging more generally – deserves the attention of women who are motivated to look and feel their very best at every age.

The mechanism of aging has long been an area of intensive research, and although a number of theories have been proposed, mitochondrial decay has widely become regarded as the leading cause of skin aging.

The concept may sound complicated, but it is surprisingly simple. Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelle of every cell. Cells make up every organ and all living cells have mitochondria. In fact, there are thousands of mitochondria per cell. Their primary job is to generate ATP, or fuel, through various energy cycles that involve nutrients and vitamins. ATP is needed for every movement, thought and action we make, yet very little ATP can be stored in the body.

In the natural process of oxidation (turning oxygen into energy), the mitochondria generate free radicals – highly reactive, unstable molecules that cause damage to healthy cells, leading to internal aging as well as the appearance of visible signs of external aging. As we age, the mitochondria become larger, less efficient and fewer in number. As such, ATP production declines and may eventually lead to cell death.

As organs cannot borrow energy from one another, the efficiency of each organ’s mitochondria is essential to its repair processes and functions. If an organ’s mitochondria fail, then so does that organ. The skin is the largest organ in the body, so the enhancement and protection of actual mitochondrial function is instrumental in preventing and slowing skin aging.