Glissandrin™: The Ultimate Anti-Aging Skincare Ingredient

This is Part 3 of a 3-part series on the quest by scientists to find effective ways to fight skin aging. In our previous article, entitled “What have scientists found to fight the leading cause of skin aging – mitochondrial decay?”, we discussed how Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B have been proven to be successful in that regard, dramatically improving the appearance of aging skin.

A study related to this was recently published in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, the official publication of the International Academy of Cosmetic Dermatology. “Mitochondria: a new focus as an anti-aging target in skin care” confirms the important role of mitochondrial function in aging and advocates targeting mitochondria in the development of new products.

Here, we continue to explore the use of Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B in the revolutionary new ingredient, Glissandrin™, which promises to change the way we approach skin care.

As discussed in previous articles, mitochondrial decay plays a fundamental role in the process of aging. Over time, cells lose the ability to function normally, falling victim to free radicals and the ensuing oxidative stress. The consequences of this appear as the visible signs of skin aging, including wrinkles, fine lines, age spots, loss of suppleness, and a marked deterioration in skin tone.

Glissandrin™

Glissandrin™ is a suite of natural compounds isolated from the Schisandra berry. Consisting mainly of Schisandrin B and (−)Schisandrin B, Glissandrin™ also comprises (±)γ-Schisandrin, Schisandrin A, and Schisandrin C. Extensive research on Glissandrin™ has confirmed its anti-aging properties on skin cells, most notably on its ability to target the fundamental cause of aging: mitochondrial decay.

Research Findings

A. Mitochondrial decay in skin cells can be reversed by topical application of Glissandrin™

A 3-day application of Glissandrin™ cream (2% and 5%) to skin cells caused a dose-dependent increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) and α-tocopherol (α-Toc) levels in skin mitochondria. Glissandrin™ cream is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria and to reverse mitochondrial decay in aging skin cells.

Figure 1: Glissandrin™ enhances mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in the skin

Cream containing 2% or 5% Glissandrin™ was applied to skin cells on a daily basis for 3 days. The control group was treated with cream containing no Glissandrin™. Skin tissues were isolated and mitochondrial fractions were prepared. Mitochondrial reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels were measured. P < 0.05 when compared to the control, using Student’s t-test.

B. Mitochondrial functional capabilities in skin cells can be enhanced by topical application of Glissandrin™

Glissandrin™ also dose-dependently increased mitochondrial ATP (cellular energy) production in human skin cells, indicative of enhancement in mitochondrial functional ability.

Figure 2: Glissandrin™ enhances the mitochondrial functional ability in human skin cells

Cultured human skin cells were incubated with Glissandrin™ at the indicated concentration for 24 or 48 hours. ATP generation capacity was measured in situ and data were expressed as the percentage of control. P < 0.05 when compared to the control, using Student’s t-test.

C. In-vivo and in-vitro studies have confirmed other properties of Glissandrin™ that are beneficial to the skin :

  • Emolliating proliferative skin conditions
  • Enhancing the natural antioxidative capabilities in skin cells
  • Increasing the expression of cellular heat shock proteins, thereby alerting the skin to adverse external environmental factors
  • Suppressing inflammation
  • Inhibiting the production of collagenase, an enzyme that destroys collagen
  • Protecting skin cells from solar radiation – particularly UV – and repairing skin cells with UV damage
  • Reducing the destruction of elastin, a protein in the skin matrix responsible for skin elasticity
  • Inhibiting ATR protein kinase activity (cancer prevention)

Glissandrin™ has been clinically tested to be safe for even the most sensitive skin, especially for users who experience adverse reactions to most skincare products.

The desired level of biological availability and the purity of chemical compositions of Glissandrin™ are standardized through a proprietary process developed specifically for its manufacturing. Furthermore, the concentrations of the constituent compounds have been formulated for easy absorption, optimal efficacy, and a luxurious feel when applied to the skin.

The International Academy of Cosmetic Dermatology has spoken, and its message is clear: targeting mitochondrial decay is now the goal of the anti-aging industry. Without understanding and addressing mitochondrial decay, the leading cause of skin aging, most skincare products are ill-equipped to provide the real, sustainable results they promise. Fortunately, Glissandrin™ is available today as the ultimate anti-aging skincare solution.

For More Information

More information on Schisandrin B, (−)Schisandrin B, and mitochondrial decay can be found on these independent websites:

National Institutes of Health (http://www.nih.gov/)

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/)

Natural Standard (http://www.naturalstandard.com/)

About Glissandra™ Skincare Inc.

Glissandra™ Skincare Inc. is a network marketing company (also known as multi-level marketing, MLM, or direct sales) dedicated to providing effective anti-aging skincare through its holistic approach to skin health. Glissandra’s comprehensive skincare system is the result of over 20 years of research and development at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, led by Dr. Robert Ko. Over 100 research papers have been published on its key proprietary ingredient, Glissandrin™, a suite of natural compounds extracted from the Schisandra berry. In-vivo and in-vitro studies have proven the ability of Glissandrin™ to address mitochondrial decay, the leading cause of aging, and to enhance the cell’s natural ability to fight oxidative damage. (http://glissandra.com).

Contact Us

http://www.glissandra.com/

info [at] glissandra [dot] com

1-877-313-7242

References

“Mitochondria: a new focus as an anti-aging target in skin care”; Menon et al, Global R&D, ISP Corporation, New Jersey, USA; Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 2010, Wiley Periodicals Inc.

“Composition and Biological Activity of Different Extract from Schisandra sphenanthera and Schisandra chinensis”; Huyke, et al., Department of Dermatology, University Medical Centre, Freiburg, Germany; Planta Medica 2007.

“Schisandrin B-induced increase in cellular glutathione level and protection against oxidant injury are mediated by the enhancement of glutathione synthesis and regeneration in AML12 and H9c2 cells”, Ko et al., Biofactors 2006; 26: 221-230.

“Hepatoprotective mechanism of Schisandrin B: Role of mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status and heat shock proteins”, Ko et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2003; 35: 368-380.

“Composition and Biological Activity of Different Extracts from Schisandra sphenanthera and Schisandra chinensis”, Huyke et al., Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center, Freiberg, Germany, Planta Med 2007 73: 1116-1126.

“Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts”; Ko et al.; Department of Biochemistry, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Fitoterapia 82 (2011) 682-691.

“Inhibition of ATR protein kinase activity by Schisandrin B in DNA damage response”, H. Nishida et al., Department of Applied Life Science, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences; Nucleic Acids Research 2009, Vol. 37, No. 17.

Glissandrin: A superior antioxidant

In the October 2011 issue of InStyle, we learned what skin experts are prescribing to combat a number of common ailments. The first in the series shares tips on protecting skin from the elements. And while Miami dermatologist Leslie Baumann recommends using antioxidants, there’s more to the story than what’s known by even the savviest experts and consumers.

Most antioxidants are free radical scavengers, but some are so large that they cannot penetrate skin cells. This presents a problem since the source of the issue lies within the cell walls.

Fortunately, some antioxidants are not only able to penetrate skin cells but also to up-regulate the antioxidant defense systems inherent in our body. In simpler terms, that means they actually enhance the body’s natural ability to combat free radicals.

Our skin is equipped with antioxidant defense systems to fight free radicals caused by harmful stimuli. One such stimulus is solar light radiation. Long-term exposure or over-exposure to the sun can overwhelm these antioxidant systems, resulting in damage to the skin cells and the depletion of essential components such as collagen and elastin.

The consequence is photoaging, chronic alterations in the skin’s structure that become visible on the surface. Many of us are all too familiar with the signs of photoaging, which include wrinkles, brown spots, inelasticity, coarse skin texture, and uneven pigmentation.

Glissandrin™, with Schisandrin B as its key compound, has been proven to enhance the antioxidant defense systems naturally found in our skin. This is in addition to its ability to scavenge free radicals. Readily absorbed by the skin, Glissandrin is a superior antioxidant.

Glissandrin is a natural ingredient derived from Schisandra berry. Researchers at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, led by Dr. Robert Ko, recently published a paper in the respected medical journal, Fitoterapia (2011), on the protective properties of Schisandrin B in preventing and restoring skin damage from solar radiation.

To learn more, please visit http://glissandra.com.

What causes skin aging: Making sense of the latest research findings

Introduction

This is Part 1 of a 3-part series on the quest by scientists to find effective ways to fight skin aging. By understanding the leading cause of aging, mitochondrial decay, we can develop comprehensive solutions for long-term skin health.

Theories of aging

Aging is a consequence of changes that are harmful, progressive, and thus far irreversible in most living organisms, including humans. Age-associated damage occurs to biomolecules, cells, and organs. Diseases such as arthritis, osteoporosis, heart diseases, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease occur more frequently with old age.

The biochemical mechanism of aging has long been an area of intensive research, and a number of theories of aging have been proposed, including the neuro-endocrine theory, which links aging to hormonal changes; immunological theory, which attributes aging to immune system dysfunction; telomerase theory, which relates to the shortening of chromosomes during cell division; and oxidative stress theory, which refers to free radical damage to cells.

Among these theories, it is reasonable to distinguish those that attempt to establish primary causes of aging from those that are secondary. For example, the telomerase theory may be secondary since the decrease in telomerase activity can be caused by the increase in cellular oxidative stress.

In gerontology, the study of aging, oxidative stress is increasingly recognized as the primary cause of aging.

The role of mitochondrial decay in aging

If oxidative stress is indeed the primary factor in skin aging, it is important to understand its roots. Scientists now believe that oxidative stress may be caused by mitochondrial decay. Mitochondria, the chief producers of both energy and oxidants inside the cell, play a critical role in the process of aging.

As energy producers, mitochondria convert unusable forms of energy into a usable chemical form known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is required for all vital cellular chemical reactions throughout the body. During the metabolic cycle of ATP production, oxidants are released from the mitochondria as harmful by-products that can damage important biomolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. At the same time, the mitochondria themselves are also victims of this metabolic cycle of ATP production as they are highly susceptible to damage by the oxidants thus released.

Over time, largely due to cumulated damage by the oxidants, the functional capabilities of mitochondria deteriorate; the production of ATP declines; and the release of oxidants increases. The latter inflicts greater damage to the mitochondria, which in turn results in accelerated oxidant production. This is the vicious cycle of mitochondrial decay. If left unchecked, mitochondrial decay leads to cumulative damage in cellular biomolecules, resulting in a host of age-related diseases.

Effects of mitochondrial decay on the skin

The skin is the body’s largest organ. The consequence of cumulative damage in skin cell biomolecules is a corresponding increase in the depletion of important extracellular components, such as collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid, among others. The loss of these significant components is manifested in the appearance of wrinkles, fine lines, droopiness, pigmentation, puffiness, skin inelasticity, enlarged pores, dryness, and a dull skin tone.

Conclusion

An increasing amount of scientific evidence confirms that mitochondrial decay is the fundamental cause of aging; therefore, scientists are endeavoring to find remedies to reverse the declining functional capabilities of mitochondria due to aging. In Parts 2 and 3 of this series, we will explore what scientists have accomplished in this direction.

More information on mitochondrial decay and theories of aging can be found at these independent websites:

Consumer Reports rates anti-wrinkle serums

Earlier this month, Consumer Reports released the findings of their recent anti-wrinkle serum tests. The verdict: that the products they evaluated fell short on their claims. Citing inconsistent results and only minor improvements to the wrinkles of their research subjects, the organization all but dismissed anti-aging products entirely. If readers caught only the headlines, they’d find themselves considerably misinformed about the efficacy of certain products available on the market today.

It’s difficult to argue with some of the points brought up in the report, which suggests that consumers focus on moisturizing and sun protection. However, Consumer Reports neglects to investigate the reason why the serums they tested failed: the products don’t necessarily address anti-aging holistically. It is a stretch to imply that anti-wrinkle serums don’t work; after all, Consumer Reports tested only nine well-known brands, none of which take a comprehensive approach by targeting all accepted causes of skin aging.

Scientific research in the area of gerontology has found that a number of factors contribute to skin aging, including inflammation, external adverse environmental factors, and the depletion of cellular components, such as collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. Oxidative (free radical-induced) damage is often cited as a culprit, and products are loaded with antioxidants accordingly, despite their limited ability to produce results.

Scientists have now discovered the fundamental cause of skin aging: mitochondrial decay. For that reason, an effective anti-aging serum must include ingredients to address all causes of skin aging, but particularly mitochondrial decay. Fortunately for consumers, potent extracts from the schisandra berry have been proven to be effective in reversing age-related mitochondrial deterioration – so a real anti-wrinkle serum, one that lives up to its promises, does indeed exist.

Theories of aging: What you need to know

A recent article published by DailyBeauty explored five well-known theories of aging: inflammation, lifestyle, hormones, antioxidants, and detoxification. Though all are worthy of discussion, perhaps the most important theory, mitochondrial decay, was not mentioned. This dark horse in the race against skin aging – and indeed aging more generally – deserves the attention of women who are motivated to look and feel their very best at every age.

The mechanism of aging has long been an area of intensive research, and although a number of theories have been proposed, mitochondrial decay has widely become regarded as the leading cause of skin aging.

The concept may sound complicated, but it is surprisingly simple. Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelle of every cell. Cells make up every organ and all living cells have mitochondria. In fact, there are thousands of mitochondria per cell. Their primary job is to generate ATP, or fuel, through various energy cycles that involve nutrients and vitamins. ATP is needed for every movement, thought and action we make, yet very little ATP can be stored in the body.

In the natural process of oxidation (turning oxygen into energy), the mitochondria generate free radicals – highly reactive, unstable molecules that cause damage to healthy cells, leading to internal aging as well as the appearance of visible signs of external aging. As we age, the mitochondria become larger, less efficient and fewer in number. As such, ATP production declines and may eventually lead to cell death.

As organs cannot borrow energy from one another, the efficiency of each organ’s mitochondria is essential to its repair processes and functions. If an organ’s mitochondria fail, then so does that organ. The skin is the largest organ in the body, so the enhancement and protection of actual mitochondrial function is instrumental in preventing and slowing skin aging.